Production of x-ray

 

The production of X-rays occurs when electrons are accelerated under a potential difference and turned into electromagnetic radiation. An X-ray tube, with its respective components placed in a vacuum, and a generator, make up the basic production of x-ray components.

 

Production of x-ray

 

The x-ray are produced by energy conversion, when fast moving electrons from the filament of the x-ray tube interact with the tungsten Anode.  The x-ray tube is made of Pyrex glass that enclosed a vacuum containing two electrodes. The electrodes are cathode and anode. The cathode is negative terminal and the anode is positive terminal. When the high voltage apply in cathode the filament heated. The elections are produce at the filament side and the electrons can be accelerated by high potential difference to ward the anode side. When the electrons are reaching at anode side the high speed of electrons interact with target atom. The interaction of electrons conversation of kinetic energy into thermal energy. 99% of electrons conversation of heat after interaction target and only 1% or less electrons produce x-ray.

Two types of x-ray production occurs.

There are 2 types of x-ray production. they are

A) Bremsstrahlung radiation.

B) Characteristics radiation.

 

A) Bremsstrahlung radiation :-  When the high speed electrons are passes by the nucleus , it is decelerated resulting in loss of kinetic energy of electrons and the loss of kinetic energy Is converted into x-ray is called Bremsstrahlung x-ray.

When the electrons are pass near the nucleus. The nucleus has positive charged and electrons has negative charged. The negative charged attracted at the positive charged. The electron is attached towards the nucleus and thus deflected from their original direction. The electron loss their energy and slow down when it’s direction changes. The kinetic energy lost by the electron is emitted directly in the form of photons of radiation. The x-ray produced by this process is called Bremsstrahlung radiation or general radiation.

 

 Bremsstrahlung radiation.

 

 

B) Characteristics radiation :- When the high moving electron bombarding the target eject electrons from the inner orbits of the nucleus. The ejection of inner she’ll of the the orbit leaving an ionised atom with unfilled inner shell. That time the electrons from the outer orbit fill the vacant of inner shell orbit. This types of transection is called characteristic radiation.

The binding energy of an electron in the K shell of tungsten is 70 keV and the cathode electron have more energy of 70 keV to eject the K shell electron from the inner shell.

 

Characteristics radiation

 

 

 

Book link:- https://amzn.to/40xVX0p

Textbook Of Radiology For Residents And Technicians 5Ed (Pb 2018)

 

2) https://amzn.to/3z88f4e

Textbook of Radiology for X-Ray, CT, MRI, BSc, BRIT and MSc Technicians

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