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History of Ultrasound. - radiologystar

History of Ultrasound.

Historically, medical uses of ultrasound came about shortly after the close of World War II, derived from undetwater sonar research.Initial clinical applications monitored changes in the propagation of pulses through the brain to detect intrac-erebral hematoma and brain tumors based on the displacement of the midline. Ultrasound rapidly progressed through the 1960s from simple “A-mode” scans to “B-mode” applications and compound “B-scan” images using analog electronics.

Advances in equipment design, data acquisition techniques, and data processing capabilities have led to electronic transducer arrays, digital electronics, and real-time image display. This progress is changing the scope of ultrasound and its applications in diagnostic radiology and other areas of medicine. High-resolution, real-time imaging, harmonic imaging, 3D data acquisition, and power Doppler are a few of the innovations introduced into clinical practice. Contrast agents for better delin- eation of the anatomy, measurement of tissue perfusion, precise drug delivery mechanisms, and determination of elastic properties of the tissues are topics of current research.
                Ultrasound is the most commonly used diagnostic imaging modality, accounting for approximately 25% of all imaging examinations performed worldwide at the beginning of the 21st century. The success of ultrasound may be attributed to a number of attractive characteristics, including the relatively low cost and portability of an ultrasound scanner, the non-ionizing nature of ultrasound waves, the ability to produce real time images of blood flow and moving structures such as the beating heart, and the intrinsic contrast among soft tissue structures that is achieved without the need for an injected contrast agent. The latter characteristic enables ultrasound to be used for a wide range of medical applications, which historically have primarily included cardiac and vascular imaging, imaging of the abdominal organs and, most famously, in utero imaging of the developing fetus. Ongoing technological improvements continue to expand the use of ultrasound for many applications, including cancer imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, ophthalmology and others. The term ultrasound refers specifically to acoustic waves at frequencies greater than the maximum frequency audible to humans, which is nominally 20 kHz. Diagnostic imaging is generally performed using ultrasound in the frequency range of 2–15 MHz. The choice of frequency is dictated by a trade off between spatial resolution and penetration depth, since higher frequency waves can be focused more tightly but are attenuated more rapidly by tissue. The information contained in an ultrasonic image is influenced by the physical processes underlying propagation, reflection and attenuation of ultrasound waves in tissue.

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