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History Of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( NMR). - radiologystar

History Of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( NMR ).

Nuclear magnetic resonance ( NMR ) is a powerful technique for the investigation of chemical and physical properties at the molecular level. The discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), a property of nuclei in a magnetic field where they are able to absorb applied radiofrequency (RF) energy. The nuclear magnetic resonance was first described and measured in molecular beams by Isidor I. Rabi in 1938 by extending the stern- Gerlach experiment. The NMR is the physical phenomenon in which nuclei in magnetic field absorbed and emit electromagnetic radiation. Isidor I. Rabi received the Nobel prize for physics in 1944.




Isidor Rabi

  Isidor Rabi  ( 1898 – 1988)


in 1946, Felix Bloch and Edward Purcell refined the methods and successfully measured the NMR signal from liquids and solids. For their discoveries,  Felix Bloch and Edward Purcell received the Nobel Prize  in 1952.


Felix Bloch

Felix Bloch ( 1905 – 1983)



Edward Purcell

Edward Purcell ( 1912 – 1997)  



While Isidor Rabi,Felix Bloch,Edward Purcell and other physicists working in this field had laid the foundations, a major discovery that transformed the NMR phenomenon for imaging was not made until 1973, when Paul Lauterbur developed a method for spatially encoding the NMR signal by utilizing linear magnetic field gradients. About the same time, Peter Mansfield had also discovered a means of determining the spatial structure of solids by introducing a linear gradient across the object. The idea of applying magnetic field gradients to induce spatially varying resonance frequencies to resolve the spatial distribution of magnetization was a major milestone and the beginning of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For their work, Lauterbur and Mansfield were awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine in 2003.  Damadian created the first body picture in 1976. paul lauterbur a nuclear magnetic resonance chemist was working on project at the same time.
Paul Lauterbur

Paul Lauterbu( 1929 – 2007 )

Peter Mansfield

Peter Mansfield ( 1933 – 2017 )

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